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User Experience Evaluation in Virtual Reality for Autism: A Systematic Literature Review

Aulia Hening Darmasti; Niels Pinkwart; Raphael Zender
In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction - Addressing Diversity (UAHCI), July 23-28, Copenhagen, Denmark, Pages 546-568, LNCS, Vol. 14020, ISBN 978-3-031-35681-0, Springer Nature Switzerland, 7/2023.


Virtual reality (VR) used for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is gaining a place among researchers lately. The rich interactivity provided by VR makes it a powerful tool for various purposes, one of which is to support interventions for people with ASD. Since people with ASD have a different sensory experience, the user experience (UX) within VR applications for ASD becomes a crucial aspect. There have been past literature reviews of VR applications for ASD. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is hardly one that focuses on the methods used in evaluating the users’ experience towards interaction techniques or interface elements incorporated in various VR applications. In this review, 24 studies met predetermined PICo (Population, Interest, Context) criteria from the search based on three relevant databases, namely Pubmed NCBI,, and IEEE Xplore. Direct examination from observers appears as the most popular method used to assess experiences of people with ASD in using VR and followed by self-report questionnaire method. In addition, although all relevant literatures mentioned their UX evaluation method, only a few studies whose evaluation is relevantly subjected towards their interaction techniques or user interface elements. This review is expected to provide insights and considerations in designing UX evaluation method for VR applications for people with ASD in the future.