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Queries, Rules and Definitions as Epistemic Statements in Concept Languages

Francesco M. Donini; Maurizio Lenzerini; Daniele Nardi; Werner Nutt; Andrea Schaerf
DFKI, DFKI Research Reports (RR), Vol. 93-40, 1993.


Concept languages have been studied in order to give a formal account of the basic features of frame-based languages. The focus of research in concept languages was initially on the semantical reconstruction of frame-based systems and the computational complexity of reasoning. More recently, attention has been paid to the formalization of other aspects of frame-based languages, such as non-monotonic reasoning and procedural rules, which are necessary in order to bring concept languages closer to implemented systems. In this paper we discuss the above issues in the framework of concept languages enriched with an epistemic operator. In particular, we show that the epistemic operator both introduces novel features in the language, such as sophisticated query formulation and closed world reasoning, and makes it possible to provide a formal account for some aspects of the existing systems, such as rules and definitions, that cannot be characterized in a standard first-order framework.