Cascade Network with Deformable Composite Backbone for Formula Detection in Scanned Document Images

Khurram Azeem Hashmi, Alain Pagani, Marcus Liwicki, Didier Stricker, Muhammad Zeshan Afzal

In: Applied Sciences (MDPI) 11 16 Seite 7610 MDPI Switzerland 8/2021.


This paper presents a novel architecture for detecting mathematical formulas in document images, which is an important step for reliable information extraction in several domains. Recently, Cascade Mask R-CNN networks have been introduced to solve object detection in computer vision. In this paper, we suggest a couple of modifications to the existing Cascade Mask R-CNN architecture: First, the proposed network uses deformable convolutions instead of conventional convolutions in the backbone network to spot areas of interest better. Second, it uses a dual backbone of ResNeXt-101, having composite connections at the parallel stages. Finally, our proposed network is end-to-end trainable. We evaluate the proposed approach on the ICDAR-2017 POD and Marmot datasets. The proposed approach demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on ICDAR-2017 POD at a higher IoU threshold with an f1-score of 0.917, reducing the relative error by 7.8%. Moreover, we accomplished correct detection accuracy of 81.3% on embedded formulas on the Marmot dataset, which results in a relative error reduction of 30%.


mdpi_formula.pdf (pdf, 9 MB )

Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence